any of a large group of plant-derived compounds. Tannins tend to be bitter tasting and may function in pigment formation and plant protection.
broken capillaries in the skin.
the segment of DNA at each end of a chromosome.
an agent that interferes with normal development of an embryo or fetus.
one-third of a sample or population.
a condition of prolonged and painful spasms of the voluntary muscles, especially the fingers and toes (carpopedal spasm), as well as the facial musculature.
Beta thalassemia is a genetic disorder that results in abnormalities of the globin (protein) portion of hemoglobin. An individual who is homozygous for the ß thalassemia gene (has two copies of the ß thalassemia gene) is said to have thalassemia major. Infants born with thalassemia major develop severe anemia a few months after birth, accompanied by pallor, fatigue, poor growth, and frequent infections. Blood transfusions are used to treat thalassemia major but cannot cure it.
Individuals who are heterozygous for the ß thalassemia gene (carry one copy of the ß thalassemia gene) are said to have thalassemia minor or thalassemia trait. These individuals are generally healthy but can pass the ß thalassemia gene to their children and are said to be carriers of the ß thalassemia gene.
the process of controlling body temperature to prevent both excessive cooling and warming.
the point at which a physiological effect begins to be produced, for example, the degree of stimulation of a nerve which produces a response or the level of a chemical in the diet that results in a disease.
a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that secretes thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones regulate a number of physiologic processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.
Thyroid follicular cancer
a cancer of the thyroid gland that constitutes about 30% of all thyroid cancers. It has a greater rate of recurrence and metastases (spreading to other organs) than thyroid papillary cancer.
Thyroid papillary cancer
the most common form of thyroid cancer, which most often affects women of childbearing age. Thyroid papillary cancer has a lower rate of recurrence and metastases (spreading to other organs) than thyroid follicular cancer.
applied to the skin or other body surface.
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
intravenous (I.V.) feeding that provides patients with essential nutrients when they are too ill to eat normally.
also known as spongy or cancellous bone, the type of bone found within the ends of long bones and inside flat bones and spinal vertebrae.
(DNA transcription); the process by which one strand of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.
a protein that functions to initiate, enhance, or inhibit the transcription of a gene. Transcription factors can regulate the formation of a specific protein encoded by a gene.
hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
sometimes called a small or mini stroke. TIAs are caused by a temporary disturbance of blood supply to an area of the brain, resulting in a sudden, brief (usually less than one hour) disruptions in certain brain functions.
(RNA translation); the process by which the sequence of nucleotides in a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule directs the incorporation of amino acids into a protein.
an injury or wound.
trembling or shaking of a part or all of the body.
lipid consisting of three fatty acid molecules bound to a glycerol backbone. Triglycerides are the principal form of fat in the diet, although they are also synthesized endogenously. Triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue and represent the principal storage form of fat. Elevated serum triglycerides are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
a hereditary disorder characterized by increased urinary excretion of trimethylamine, a compound with a “fishy” or foul odor.
a clinical measure of bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
an infection caused by bacteria called mycobacterium tuberculosis. Many people infected with tuberculosis have no symptoms because it is dormant. Once active, tuberculosis may cause damage to the lungs and other organs. Active tuberculosis is also contagious and is spread through inhalation. Treatment of tuberculosis involves taking antibiotics and vitamins for at least six months.
an infectious disease spread by the contamination of food or water supplies with the bacteria called salmonella typhi. Food and water can be contaminated directly by sewage or indirectly by flies or poor hygiene. Though rare in the US, it is common in some parts of the world. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and a rash. It is treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids. Vaccination is recommended to those traveling to areas where typhoid is common.
tolerable upper intake level. Established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine, the UL is the highest level of daily intake of a specific nutrient likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals of a specified age.
a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum. Symptoms of ulcerative colitis include abdominal pain, cramping, and bloody diarrhea.
a test in which high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off tissues and the echoes are converted into a picture (sonogram).
Unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid with at least one double bond between carbons.
an antioxidant produced by the body.
dementia resulting from cerebrovascular disease, for example, a cerebrovascular accident (stroke).
the single cell layer that lines the inner surface of blood vessels. Healthy endothelial function promotes vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation (clot formation).
the creation of new blood vessels or the extension of existing blood vessels into tissue.
narrowing of a blood vessel.
relaxation or opening of a blood vessel.
the material in which a treatment compound is dissolved.
the two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the body (left) and the lungs (right).
of or pertaining to a vertebra, 1 of the 23 bones that comprise the spine.
literally a small bag or pouch. Inside a cell, a vesicle is a small organelle surrounded by its own membrane.
marked by a rapid, severe, or damaging course.
a microorganism, which cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell. Viruses invade living cells and use the synthetic processes of infected cells to survive and replicate.
an organic (carbon-containing) compound necessary for normal physiological function that cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet.
a chemical compound that is foreign to the organism. Xenobiotics may include dietary factors, toxins, pharmaceuticals, and pollutants.
a series of enzymatic reactions that convert a foreign chemical compound into an inert substance that can be safely excreted from the body. The three phases of xenobiotic metabolism include: (i) activation, (ii) functionalization, and (iii) efflux.
a transplant of tissue from a donor of one species to a recipient of another species.
a rare disorder caused by a tumor called a gastrinoma, most often occurring in the pancreas. The tumor secretes the hormone gastrin, which causes increased production of gastric acid leading to severe recurrent ulcers of the esophagus, stomach, and the upper portions of the small intestine.